Yes, but poorly and with caveats.
The first caveat is that the motor won't start by itself. If you don't do anything it will simply sit there and burn up.
If you give it a twist it will start and run in that direction but with considerably less efficiency and output power. It will probably vibrate more than usual.
There's an interesting application for a 3-phase motor running on single phase, because the third (unused) terminal develops a voltage that reproduces 3-phase AC power. The voltage isn't balanced so it's not very good 3-phase, but many people use this phenomenon to make a simple rotary phase converter. You take a relatively large 3-phase AC motor, connect it to single phase AC and provide a means to start it, and then you run it continuously without load just to generate the other two phases to run other, smaller 3-phase motors in a machine shop. They won't run as well as on true 3-phase AC, but the method is very simple and often sufficient for many users unable to afford a true phase converter.